The 4C’s

In order to value a diamond in the most accurate way, some factors are taken into consideration. These factors are generally referred to as the 4 C’s:


1. Clarity

When examining a diamond under a 10x magnifier, some inclusions may become visible. The clarity scale is graded upon the size, number, location and visibility of the inclusions. Different categories exist ranging from the most flawless stone to the one with the most inclusions. The clarity grade, and hence the diamond’s value, increase as there are fewer inclusions.

Diamond Clarity Chart

2. Cut

Cut refers to the angles and proportions of a diamond. It is the only one of the 4C’s that is influenced by the human hand. Cut also refers to the shape of a diamond. Round diamonds are symmetrical and capable of reflecting nearly all the light that enters. It is the most brilliant of all diamond shapes and follows specific proportional guidelines. Non-round shapes, also known as ‘fancy shapes’ need to follow specific guidelines in order to be well cut.

Diamond Cut Chart

3. Colour

Diamonds can occur in all kinds of colours. The colour scale ranges from 0 to 7. Colourless diamonds are most valuable and hence the most pricy.

Diamond Color Chart

4. Carat

Diamond carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weighs. A metric “carat” is defined as 200 milligrams. Each carat can be subdivided into 100 ‘points.’ This allows very precise measurements to the hundredth decimal place.

Diamond Carat Chart


The issuing of a diamond certificate is crucial in order to value a diamond. Following a thorough examination of a diamond’s characteristics, a certificate is issued by institutions such as the GIA, HRD and IGI. The former are the three most renowned institutions specialising in diamond grading.


Certain stones may emit a glow when exposed to invisible UV lighting. Fluorescence may give the impression the stone is colourless, whereas it actually has a lower colour grade.